Information on national and multinational cyber-exercises was gathered worldwide and analysed in this report. We found that a total of 22 European countries were conducting national cyber-security exercises during the last years.
The key findings include:
- Cyber-exercises have increased in numbers recent years; 71% occurred 2010-2012. The reasons are the overall policy context that boosts cyber-exercises, an increased emphasis by EU Member States thereupon, and the increasing threat of cross border cyber incidents and attacks.
- Cyber-security and cyber crisis cooperation efforts are receiving ever more attention.
- There is an essential need to intensify public–private cooperation on cyber-exercises, as the ownership of most of the critical information infrastructures lies in private hands.
- Proper planning, monitoring and evaluation methods are crucial for effective cyber-exercises.
- 64% of the multinational exercises involved more than 10 countries, 13% involved 6–10 countries and 13% involved 3–5 countries.
- In 57% of the exercises both the public and private sector participated, while 41% involved only the public sector.
- Two-thirds of the analysed exercises were national exercises and one-third was multinational exercises. This indicates a tendency for international cooperation, although national security matters usually are domestic concerns.
- Exercises also generated media footprint for 74% of them, creating national cyber-security awareness.
- Establish a more integrated global cyber exercise community
- Ensure exchange of good practices on cyber-exercises, including public–private cooperation
- Support development of exercise management tools for better exercise planning, execution and evaluation
- Conduct more complex cyber-exercises at inter-sectorial, international and European levels
- Exercises should be included in the lifecycle of national cyber crisis contingency plans
- Promote the good practices for national exercises, and initiate a step-by-step methodology for cross-border cyber-exercises
- Develop feedback mechanisms for ensuring that lessons learned from cyber-exercises.
For an interview with Professor Udo Helmbrecht check out the September issue of (IN)SECURE Magazine.
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