Cyber threats are a growing menace, spreading to all industry sectors that rely on ICT systems. Recent deliberate disruptions of critical automation systems, such as Stuxnet, prove that cyber-attacks have a significant impact on critical infrastructures.
Disruption of these ICT capabilities may have disastrous consequences for EU Member States' governments and social well-being. The need to ensure ICT robustness against cyber-attacks is thus a key challenge at national and pan-European level.
Some key findings of the report:
- Maritime cyber security awareness is currently low, to non-existent. Member States are thus highly recommended to undertake targeted maritime sector awareness raising campaigns and cyber security training of shipping companies, port authorities, national cyber security offices, etc.
- Due to the high ICT complexity, it is a major challenge to ensure adequate maritime cyber security. A common strategy, and the establishing of good practices for technology development and implementation of ICT systems would therefore ensure "security by design" for all critical maritime ICT components.
- As current maritime regulations and policies consider only physical aspects of security and safety, policy makers should add cyber security aspects to them.
- ENISA strongly recommends a holistic, risk-based approach; assessment of maritime-specific cyber risks, as well as identification of all critical assets within this sector.
- As maritime governance is fragmented between different levels (i.e. international, European, national), the International Maritime Organisation together with the EU Commission and the Member States should align international and EU policies in this sector.
- Better information exchange and statistics on cyber security can help insurers to improve their actuarial models, reduce own risks, and thus offer better contractual insurance conditions for the maritime sector. Information exchange platforms, such as CPNI.NL, should be also considered and by Member States to better communications.